The Genealogy of Jesus There are two genealogy lines of Jesus found in the New Testament. Matthew 1:1-16 speaks of the line of Joseph, Jesus' father. Matthew shows Jesus' lineage goes straight back from Joseph to King David. The other genealogy line found in the New Testament is found in Luke 3:23-38. Luke writes of the lineage of Jesus through Mary, Jesus' mother. There are two traditions we need to mention. First, the "seed" is passed through the father. Thus the lineage of the father is followed to establish what tribe a Semite/Hebrew comes from. The second "tradition" is that the Jews establish someone as being Jewish by having a mother who is Jewish. In this study, both of these traditions add to the understanding of the seeming differences in Matthew and Luke. Luke concentrates his Gospel unlike the other Gospels on bringing the message of salvation to Gentiles and includes the lineage of Mary as a way to show Gentiles that Jesus' line goes all the way back to King David through David's older son Nathan and thus skips the curse... we will talk about this later. Matthew concentrates his lineage on proving that Jesus is a direct descendant of King David as the Jews expect the Messiah to descend from. These two genealogy lines of Jesus have confused some people and have even been the basis of a false and uneducated argument that the Gospels are unreliable because the two genealogy lines conflict with each other. There is nothing further from the truth. The writers of theses Gospels have given us both lineages in order to prove that Jesus was a direct descendant of King David and that the two family lines that split earlier in the time of this world come together once again with the birth of our Messiah, Jesus. In this paper we will first present the New Testament Scripture verses, the Old Testament verses that connect the New Testament verses, (and is the source of confusion for some because they fail to recognize that Matthew picks up where the Old Testament lineage stops), and we will break down each person within the lineage in order to clearly show EXACTLY how these two genealogy lines prove who Jesus is and how God's Word unfolds and enlightens us. NOTE:
There are several "events" that took place which directly influence the genealogy lines. These events seem to leave out some names and add some to the list. We will give the reasons for these events as they come up... The Scripture: Matthew 1:1-16 (NIV)
The Genealogy of Jesus
1A record of the genealogy of Jesus Christ the son of David, the son of Abraham: 2Abraham was the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers, 3Judah the father of Perez and Zerah, whose mother was Tamar, Perez the father of Hezron, Hezron the father of Ram, 4Ram the father of Amminadab, Amminadab the father of Nahshon, Nahshon the father of Salmon, 5Salmon the father of Boaz, whose mother was Rahab, Boaz the father of Obed, whose mother was Ruth, Obed the father of Jesse, 6and Jesse the father of King David. David was the father of Solomon, whose mother had been Uriah's wife, 7Solomon the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, Abijah the father of Asa, 8Asa the father of Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat the father of Jehoram, Jehoram the father of Uzziah, 9Uzziah the father of Jotham, Jotham the father of Ahaz, Ahaz the father of Hezekiah, 10Hezekiah the father of Manasseh, Manasseh the father of Amon, Amon the father of Josiah, 11and Josiah the father of Jeconiah[a] and his brothers at the time of the exile to Babylon. 12After the exile to Babylon: Jeconiah was the father of Shealtiel, Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel, 13Zerubbabel the father of Abiud, Abiud the father of Eliakim, Eliakim the father of Azor, 14Azor the father of Zadok, Zadok the father of Akim, Akim the father of Eliud, 15Eliud the father of Eleazar, Eleazar the father of Matthan, Matthan the father of Jacob, 16and Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.
Luke 3:23-38 (NIV)
23Now Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry. He was the son, so it was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli, 24the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melki, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph, 25the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai, 26the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Josech, the son of Joda, 27the son of Joanan, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri, 28the son of Melki, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmadam, the son of Er, 29the son of Joshua, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, 30the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jonam, the son of Eliakim, 31the son of Melea, the son of Menna, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David, 32the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon,[a] the son of Nahshon, 33the son of Amminadab, the son of Ram,[b] the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah, 34the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor, 35the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah, 36the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, 37the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalalel, the son of Kenan, 38the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.
Genesis 5:1-32 (NIV)
From Adam to Noah
1 This is the written account of Adam's line. When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. 2 He created them male and female and blessed them. And when they were created, he called them "man" 3 When Adam had lived 130 years, he had a son in his own likeness, in his own image; and he named him Seth. 4 After Seth was born, Adam lived 800 years and had other sons and daughters. 5 Altogether, Adam lived 930 years, and then he died.
6 When Seth had lived 105 years, he became the father [b] of Enosh. 7 And after he became the father of Enosh, Seth lived 807 years and had other sons and daughters. 8 Altogether, Seth lived 912 years, and then he died.
9 When Enosh had lived 90 years, he became the father of Kenan. 10 And after he became the father of Kenan, Enosh lived 815 years and had other sons and daughters. 11 Altogether, Enosh lived 905 years, and then he died.
12 When Kenan had lived 70 years, he became the father of Mahalalel. 13 And after he became the father of Mahalalel, Kenan lived 840 years and had other sons and daughters. 14 Altogether, Kenan lived 910 years, and then he died.
15 When Mahalalel had lived 65 years, he became the father of Jared. 16 And after he became the father of Jared, Mahalalel lived 830 years and had other sons and daughters. 17 Altogether, Mahalalel lived 895 years, and then he died.
18 When Jared had lived 162 years, he became the father of Enoch. 19 And after he became the father of Enoch, Jared lived 800 years and had other sons and daughters. 20 Altogether, Jared lived 962 years, and then he died.
21 When Enoch had lived 65 years, he became the father of Methuselah. 22 And after he became the father of Methuselah, Enoch walked with God 300 years and had other sons and daughters. 23 Altogether, Enoch lived 365 years. 24 Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, because God took him away.
25 When Methuselah had lived 187 years, he became the father of Lamech. 26 And after he became the father of Lamech, Methuselah lived 782 years and had other sons and daughters. 27 Altogether, Methuselah lived 969 years, and then he died.
28 When Lamech had lived 182 years, he had a son. 29 He named him Noah [c] and said, "He will comfort us in the labor and painful toil of our hands caused by the ground the LORD has cursed." 30 After Noah was born, Lamech lived 595 years and had other sons and daughters. 31 Altogether, Lamech lived 777 years, and then he died.
32 After Noah was 500 years old, he became the father of Shem, Ham and Japheth.
Genesis 11:10-26 (NIV)
From Shem to Abram
10 This is the account of Shem. Two years after the flood, when Shem was 100 years old, he became the father of Arphaxad. 11 And after he became the father of Arphaxad, Shem lived 500 years and had other sons and daughters. 12 When Arphaxad had lived 35 years, he became the father of Shelah. 13 And after he became the father of Shelah, Arphaxad lived 403 years and had other sons and daughters. 14 When Shelah had lived 30 years, he became the father of Eber. 15 And after he became the father of Eber, Shelah lived 403 years and had other sons and daughters. 16 When Eber had lived 34 years, he became the father of Peleg. 17 And after he became the father of Peleg, Eber lived 430 years and had other sons and daughters.
18 When Peleg had lived 30 years, he became the father of Reu. 19 And after he became the father of Reu, Peleg lived 209 years and had other sons and daughters.
20 When Reu had lived 32 years, he became the father of Serug. 21 And after he became the father of Serug, Reu lived 207 years and had other sons and daughters.
22 When Serug had lived 30 years, he became the father of Nahor. 23 And after he became the father of Nahor, Serug lived 200 years and had other sons and daughters.
24 When Nahor had lived 29 years, he became the father of Terah. 25 And after he became the father of Terah, Nahor lived 119 years and had other sons and daughters.
26 After Terah had lived 70 years, he became the father of Abram, Nahor and Haran.
The Paper... Let us first begin by mapping out Genesis 5:1-32: 1. The Son of God, the Creator, the Creator of Adam. NOTE#1: Why is the Creator first? The Creator is the first manifestation of the Father...this first manifestation is the Son of God who created heaven, earth and mankind. This Creator also came to live in a tent of flesh with the name JESUS in order to solve the problem of perpetual sin of mankind and to grant salvation to those who follow Him...the Creator. The Son of God, the Creator has the ability to come here whenever and however He chose...and He did as an act of love for His created sons and daughters of Adam. 2. Adam 3. Seth NOTE#2: Who is missing here? It is Cain and Abel. Both are not part of the lineage because Abel was murdered by Cain and had no descendants and Cain and his descendants were cursed. (See Genesis 4:11-26) Since Cain was a murderer and cursed by God, Cain and his descendants are removed from the lineage of Adam.
4. Enosh 5. Kenan 6. Mahalalel 7. Jared 8. Enoch 9. Methuselah 10. Lamech 11. Noah 12. Shem (who is also called Melchizedek AFTER the Flood) NOTE #3: The genealogy line continues with Shem. Out of Noah's three sons, Shem is the only one to carry on The Creator's "elected" seed lineage. This is the way the Creator wills it... the first born inherit the birth right and Shem is commonly thought to be the oldest of Noah's sons... however most translations state that Japheth is the oldest. The first born USUALLY inherit the birth rights and that is the way it is UNLESS the Creator changes it. Most Bible translations state in Genesis 10:21, Japheth being the oldest son of Noah even though the sons of Noah are listed in the order of "Shem, Ham, and Japheth". The order that the sons are listed does not mean that the first name stated means that they are the oldest. Regardless, we know that Shem is the one who carries the line from here. Now we move on to Genesis 11:10-32: 13. Arphaxad 14. (Cainan) NOTE#4: There is a name missing here in Genesis that Luke includes in his genealogy line. It is Cainan. Cainan is not included because of Jewish tradition. Luke included it because he is not writing to Jews, but writes his Gospel for Gentiles. The reason for the Jewish tradition of not including the name of Cainan goes back to Genesis 9:20-27. Noah drank too much wine and got drunk, and in the process became unclothed and naked. Ham saw his father naked and instead of looking away and covering him, he does nothing and tells his brothers about it. This led Noah to curse the son of Ham whose name was Cainan. Noah did not curse Ham, but cursed the descendants of Ham. Cainan is not included in the genealogy of Genesis and is still so today but the curse included the terms that Cainan shall dwell in the house of Shem as a servant. If your nephew was cursed to be a servant in your house, what would happen? Would your nephew be treated as a member of your family? Is it possible that your nephew could marry into the family? In modern times and especially in the West, it is no longer common for cousins to marry. Back in the old days it happened quite often. We believe that Luke picks up on this and includes Cainan in between Shem's son Arphaxad, and Arphaxad's son, Shelah. 15. Shelah 16. Eber 17. Peleg 18. Reu 19. Serug 20. Nahor 21. Terah 22. Abram NOTE#5: Again, Abram who is later called Abraham is the one chosen to carry the "elect" lineage of the Creator. Most agree that Abram was the oldest of Terah's sons. We know as a fact that Abraham is the one to carry the lineage from this point regardless of the argument that some say Haran was the oldest son. Now we move on to Matthew 1:1-16: 23. Isaac 24. Jacob 25. Judah 26. Perez 27. Hezron 28. Ram 29. Amminadab 30. Nahshon 31. Salmon 32. Boaz 33. Obed 34. Jesse 35. KING DAVID Note#6: This is the point where the split between Mary the Mother of Jesus, and Joseph the father of Jesus occurs. Almost all of the names in the genealogy lines found in Matthew and Luke match up until this point. In Matthew, the lineage leading to Joseph starts with Solomon, and in Luke the lineage leading to Mary starts with Nathan, who is also the older brother of Solomon as stated in 2 Samuel 5:13-16: 13 After he left Hebron, David took more concubines and wives in Jerusalem, and more sons and daughters were born to him. 14 These are the names of the children born to him there: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, 15 Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, 16 Elishama, Eliada and Eliphelet.. Solomon the younger brother takes the throne and this is significant in understanding the reason for this "split". Note that the first born inherits the rights EXCEPT when God changes it. This is one of these exceptions...the younger brother takes the throne. (See 1 Chronicles 3:4-9 and 2 Samuel 5:14 for proof that Nathan is the older brother). First, when God says something...it happens. God never lies. Second, God can change His own rules whenever He wants. He does what He says, always, but can "go around" His own commands when it is necessary and does so without ever breaking His own Word. This point of lineage, with King David, is one of the times that God says something and does it but reconciles the lineage by doing something else with the descendants of King David. This begins with a curse from God found in Jeremiah.
In the genealogy in Matthew 1, notice one name, Jeconiah, in verse 11. If Joseph had been Jesus' father according to the flesh, He could never have occupied the throne, for God's word barred the way. There had been a curse on this royal line since the days of Jeconiah. In Jeremiah 22:30 we read, "Thus says the Lord: write this man down as childless, a man who shall not prosper in his days: for none of his descendants shall prosper, sitting on the throne of David, and ruling any more in Judah." Joseph was in the line of this curse. Hence, if Jesus had been Joseph's son, He could not have sat on David's throne without inheriting this curse. Joseph is directly related to Solomon whose line was cursed. This curse is in effect FOR ANY ONE WHO SITS ON THE THRONE OF DAVID. Nathan never sat on the throne of David but they are the blood line of King David. Again, in Luke 3 we read the genealogy of Mary's line, back to David, through Nathan, not Jeconiah (Luke 3:31). Jesus was not conceived by Joseph but by the Holy Spirit in person (Lk.1:35, Mat.1:18-25). Joseph was the "legal father" of Jesus, the "adopted father", but not the "natural father". With the joining of the two lines of Mary and Joseph, the curse is side-stepped and the lineage of King David is direct through the legal adoption of Jesus through Joseph. This adoption allows Jesus to be the legal son without the curse coming through Joseph to Jesus as would happen if Jesus was the natural son of Joseph.
We will compare the two lines of Mary and Joseph later in the paper. 36. Solomon 37. Rehoboam 38. Abijah 39. Asa 40. Jehoshaphat 41. Jehoram 42. Uzziah 43. Jotham 44. Ahaz 45. Hezekiah 46. Manasseh 47. Amon 48. Josiah NOTE#7: Matthew 1:17 states that there are 14 generations from Abraham to David, which is clear on this list, and 14 generations from David to the exile to Babylon which happens right here with the birth of Jeconiah and his brothers. When counting from David, the exile of Babylon is included and counted. As the verse says, "there are 14 generations from David TO THE EXILE TO BABYLON". So, David is #1 and the exile is #14. From the Exile to Jesus, the Exile is not counted because is was counted earlier, and Jesus is counted. So, from Abraham to David = 14 from David to the Exile = 14 from the Exile to Jesus = 14 49. Jeconiah 50. Shealtiel 51. Zerubbabel 52. Abiud 53. Eliakim 54. Azor 55. Zadok 56. Akim 57. Eliud 58. Eleazar 59. Matthan 60. Jacob 61. Joseph 62. Jesus the Christ So, in Matthew's genealogy of Joseph there are 62 generations. Now we will list out the genealogy of Mary found in Luke 3:23-38. Luke goes backwards from Jesus to Adam and we will list them as found in the verses and will later place the names as Matthew does to compare the two lines... Luke's Lineage 77. Jesus 76. Joseph NOTE #8: Luke seems to contradict Matthew right here with a different name for Joseph's father. This is the lineage of Mary and the name Heli, found below, is the father-in-law of Joseph. There are several points we will talk about why we state this. Consider this #1: One interesting piece of information we came across is that the Jerusalem Talmud indicates that Mary was the daughter of Heli (Haggigah,Book 77, 4). Consider this #2: Since the "seed" is passed through the father, Luke did not interject "Jesus the Son of Mary". Luke could only name men who were the fathers of sons in the lineage and did not include any women/mother's names. Consider this #3: Tradition says that names of Mary's parents were Anna and Joachim. This is not found in "approved" scripture but in the Apocryphal "Gospel" of James. A possibility exists that the name Heli and Joachim are the same name. It is very possible that the name Joachim is only a variation of Heli or Eliachim, substituting one Divine name (Yahweh) for the other (Eli, Elohim). Consider this #4: Original sin is passed through the father. That means Joseph could not conceive Jesus as humans do, hence, the reason for the Holy Spirit conceiving Jesus. Second, there is a curse on the throne of David as told in the Jeremiah 22:30. Joseph is directly related to Solomon (who was the son of King David) by the lineage found in Matthew and thus Joseph inherits the curse. When God says something, it happens. Through the conception of Jesus in Mary via the Holy Spirit, both original sin and the curse of David's throne is bypassed. Notice that Jesus is still a descendant of David through Mary's line by way of David's other son, Nathan. On top of that, Joseph, the father of Jesus, is a direct descendant to the throne of King David via Solomon as written in Matthew, and legally "adopts" Jesus and makes both the marriage to Mary and the birth of Jesus official and a family. This legally brings Jesus into the lineage of King David without inheriting the original sin of mankind and the curse on David's throne. This last point is the main evidence on why we believe with a very good amount of certainty that Luke's lineage is of Mary, the mother of Jesus. 75. Heli 74. Matthat 73. Levi 72. Melki 71. Jannai 70. Joseph 69. Mattathias 68. Amos 67. Nahum 66. Esli 65. Naggai 64. Maath 63. Mattathias 62. Semein 61. Josech 60. Joda 59. Joanan 58. Rhesa 57. Zerubbabel 56. Shealtiel 55. Neri 54. Melki 53. Addi 52. Cosam 51. Elmadam 50. Er 49. Joshua 48. Eliezer 47. Jorim 46. Matthat 45. Levi 44. Simeon 43. Judah 42. Joseph 41. Jonam 40. Eliakim 39. Melea 38. Menna 37. Mattatha 36. Nathan (MATTHEW SPLITS LINE OF BROTHER SOLOMON HERE) 35. KING DAVID 34. Jesse 33. Obed 32. Boaz 31. Salmon 30. Nahshon 29. Amminadab 28. Ram 27. Hezron 26. Perez 25. Judah 24. Jacob 23. Isaac 22. Abraham 21. Terah 20. Nahor 19. Serug 18. Reu 17. Peleg 16. Eber 15. Shelah 14. Cainan (ADDED INTO HOUSE OF SHEM DUE TO NOAH'S CURSE) 13. Arphaxad 12. Shem 11. Noah 10. Lamech 9. Methuselah 8. Enoch 7. Jared 6. Mahalalel 5. Kenan 4. Enosh 3. Seth 2. Adam 1. Son of God, The Creator. Now we will join all the Old Testament and New Testament verses together and show the split with King David which leads to Mary and Joseph and comes together with the birth of Jesus. 1. The Son of God, The Creator 2. Adam 3. Seth 4. Enosh 5. Kenan 6. Mahalalel 7. Jared 8. Enoch 9. Methuselah 10. Lamech 11. Noah 12. Shem (who is also called Melchizedek AFTER the Flood) 13. Arphaxad 14. (Cainan) 15. Shelah 16. Eber 17. Peleg 18. Reu 19. Serug 20. Nahor 21. Terah 22. Abram 23. Isaac 24. Jacob 25. Judah 26. Perez 27. Hezron 28. Ram 29. Amminadab 30. Nahshon 31. Salmon 32. Boaz 33. Obed 34. Jesse 35. KING DAVID (THE SPLIT) Matthew's lineage of Joseph Luke's lineage of Mary 36. Solomon 36. Nathan 37. Rehoboam 37. Mattatha 38. Abijah 38. Menna 39. Asa 39. Melea 40. Jehoshaphat 40. Eliakim 41. Jehoram 41. Jonam 42. Uzziah 42. Joseph 43. Jotham 43. Judah 44. Ahaz 44. Simeon 45. Hezekiah 45. Levi 46. Manasseh 46. Matthat 47. Amon 47. Jorim 48. Josiah 48. Eliezar 49. Jeconiah 49. Joshua 50. Shealtiel 50. Er 51. Zerubbabel 51. Elmadam 52. Abiud 52. Cosam 53. Eliakim 53. Addi 54. Azor 54. Melki 55. Zadok 55. Neri 56. Akim 56. Shealtiel 57. Eliud 57. Zerubbabel 58. Eleazar 58. Rhesa 59. Matthan 59. Joanan 60. Jacob 60. Joda 61. Joseph 61. Josech 62. Jesus the Christ 62. Semein 63. Mattathias 64. Maath 65. Naggai 66. Esli 67. Nahum 68. Amos 69. Mattathias 70. Joseph 71. Jannai 72. Melki 73. Levi 74. Matthat 75. Heli (Father-in-Law of Joseph, father of Mary) 76. Joseph (This is Mary because Luke is only mentioning FATHERS) 77. Jesus the Christ Conclusion: Matthew's list goes through Solomon, Luke's goes through Nathan, the older son of David, avoiding the curse of Jeconiah. Alleged discrepancies between and in the genealogical lists of Matthew and Luke are shown to be more apparent than real. Reasonable solutions to the problems exist and even throw further light on the text when they are studied in depth. The Lord was prophesied and He came and fulfilled these prophecies. Jesus is the Messiah...the Creator...and He came to grant salvation through His Sacrifice. Praise the Lord! BACK TO NEW TESTAMENT TRUTH>>>